Impact of Internet Marketing on Global Business

The coding process
Coding process refers to the systematic translation of data to given variable name to make it easy for the computer processing (Brace, 2004). The process involves assigning numbers to act as labels for the particular variables. The data variables should be purely nominal. Nominal means that the data and information represented should not have any numerical relationship, for example, you cannot code the mathematical computation representing values like mean, standard deviation or sum of given data like marital status. The coding process has implemented a code for sex as MALE = M and FEMALE = F represents the two genders

During my data collection analysis, I implemented the application of two variables signs. The firsts optional sign is where the Respondent uses the cross sign (X) to check the appropriate responses. The second form of collecting data involves the respondents filling a text or numeric responses. The method of data and information collection apply to both the questionnaire and the interview questions. The interviewer shall indicate the cross sign or the specific numerical values appropriately based on the responses given by the interviewee. The simple survey in the index indicates that the first items apply the cross (X) while the second part applies the filling in of the blank. (Refer to the appendix page)

The Use of Brackets in the questionnaire and the interview questions the brackets had an implementation in the provision of the specific location to append responses.

The use of the item numbering in the questionnaire and the interview questions indicates the systematic flow of questions to the respondents. However, the case does not apply to the code book. The system of numbering in the codebook may not reflect similar numbering as in the questionnaire and the interview questions. The reason is that the survey items may contain multiple responses and multiple variables in the codebook. For example from the survey, the question labeled as the number five contain multiple responses (refer to the appendix page). The codebook contains three variables originating from the same question. Hence, the numbering format of the survey has different from the numbering format represented by the codebook.

The codebook design
The variables used may take the form of alpha or numeric. In case, multiple brackets or boxes have required the brackets or boxers may take the horizontal arrangement as indicated in the items 6 and 4 (refer to the appendix page). Similarly, the arrangement of multiple brackets or boxes may be placed vertically like in the case of item 2 and 5 (refer to the appendix page). When more than one column of brackets or boxes has specifications like the case in item number 3, the arrangement must take the horizontal positioning. The first bracket is in the first row linked to the value label 1 and the second bracket in the first row has linkage to the value labeled 2 (refer to the appendix page). The second row, the first bracket has linkage to the third label three while the second bracket in the second row has linkage to the value labeled 4 (refer to the appendix page)

The Pilot Testing and the Missing Data
It was a requirement to perform the pilot testing to collect elaborate and accurate data and information, however due to the tome constraints and the lack of enough funds the pilot testing had no conduction in this particular survey.

The data regarding the brand preferred by the respondent was missing in most of the responses. I implemented the missing data by adding a variable to the possible brand to take into consideration the missing data of the responded surveys (Kim, et al… 2010). The missing data and information were missing due to the ubiquity of the answers obtained from the survey. The blank spaces on the particular item and the data that could not bring clear understanding had treatment as the missing data. Similarly the respondents who typed the wrong brands their data had treatment as missing data. The missing data and information had entry into the computer as undecided using the following code.

V3. What is your favorite brand? (N1)

Brand W
Brand X
Brand Y
Brand Z
Undecided
Variable Measurement between Group Differences
The survey did not include the variable measurement and testing. There were no chemical evaluation and laboratory tests performed on the variables. The control observations and testing’s had no involvement in the data and collection information survey.

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Risk assessment

Introduction
Risk assessment involves arriving at an estimate of the likelihood of future acts. Risk assessment is important throughout the adjudication process. It is often carried out for dispositional purposes and in the determination of various actions. In various situations decisions are often predicated, partially, on the basis of risk assessment outcomes. Thus, the accurate assessment of future risk is important to clinicians and policymakers. Recidivism rates for sex offenders vary considerably depending on various factors. The variables include the types of victims that the individual targets, previous offenses and conviction. The ability to make determination about risk is often performed through assessment of various individual factors. Clinical judgment is important part of risk assessment. However, assessment rooted in empirical foundations based on idiosyncratic experience is significantly important. These assessments are important as they illicit information on offender’s risk of re-offending. These factors include sexual arousal to minors, past criminal history, past sexual offenses, victims, absence of age-appropriate relationships and physiological factors. Given the importance of assessments, numerous risk factors have been studied to determine how they predict re-offense. The paper will discuss a case based on estimates of the likelihood that an offender will revert to criminal sexual behavior after intervention for a prior criminal act.

Discussion
Being a probation officer with a specialized caseload of sexual offenders, I would choose the first case. The case involves a 50-year-old repeat offender who began talking openly about his sexual attraction to a particular boy. The choice is based on the risk assessment factors that predict the probability that a sex offender will recidivate. The presence of arousal patterns or deviant sexual interests can be identified in this case. The individual has a preference for deviant stimuli for children (Vitacco et al., 2009). The repeat child molester has talked openly about his sexual attraction to a particular boy. Evidently, the offender prefers sexual relations with children over sexual relationships with age-appropriate partners. Because the type of interests or preferences is so strong, it can be a significant driving force behind propensity to re-offend. Research suggests a strong link between sexual deviance and sexual recidivism (Hawes & Boccaccini, 2013).

The understanding of sexual deviance among offenders is quite clear. Sexual offenders are resistant to treatment. However, the combinations of different features pose a great risk of recidivism. The potential risk of recidivism rates of sex offenders informs the treatment or interventions necessary. The risk levels of the particular individual are high due. Additionally, child molesters tend to have high rates of repeat offenses due to the chronic nature of their pathology (Vitacco et al., 2009). Recidivistic sexual offenders are expected to hold deviant behavior that eases the commission of repeat offense. The open confession by the individual, in this case, provides a fertile ground for maintenance of deviant sexual behavior. The sexual interactions with sexual victims in sexual offending are often viewed as problematic. In this case, the victim is incapable of mutuality given that he targets children (Efta & Freeman, 2004).

Prior offenses and other general criminology factors are important predictors of potential to re-offend. An individual who has previously engaged in sexually violent conduct is more likely to re-offend. Repeat offenses and reconviction for new sex offense are often considered to be important predictors of recidivism. The individual in this case had previously engaged in child molestation. Criminal history variables are often used to predict sexual recidivism. The idea is that past criminal history is a strong predictor of future behavior. Prior convictions for sexual violence are a predictor of future sexual crimes. Literature on predictors of sexual offending address issues of previous convictions. However, the prediction of recidivism amongst sexual offenders can be complex (Langevin et al., 2004).As a group, persons with previous convictions for sex crimes have higher rates of sexual recidivism compared to those without a previous sex crime conviction. Individual who molest children outside of the family record higher rates recidivism over time. The overall recidivism rate for sex offenders is considered to be lower than that of other criminal groups. However, sex offenders are also involved in arrest or conviction for other non–sex crimes as well as new sex offenses (Vitacco et al., 2009).

The type of victims selected by sexual offenders is an important indicator of recidivism. Research suggests that individuals who offended against exclusively against male children or against a wide range of types of victim have higher risk of reoffending. Accordingly, sexual preference for children, particularly male children is strong predictors of sexual recidivism (Christiansen & Vincent, 2013). The risk of repeat offense is higher for those sexual offenses committed against unrelated children. Individuals with prior sexual abuse against children outside their family pose a greater risk for further sexual molestation. Many offenders convicted of abusing children outside the family often have previous convictions for a sexual offences compared to individuals who abused children within the family (Christiansen & Vincent, 2013).

Extra-familial sexual offenders are more likely to have served prior sentence for the same crime. However, such findings should be weighed against the likelihood that extra-familial abuse is more likely to be reported and detected. The reason being that seriousness of the offence differs as incest is considered to be less life-threatening compared to random sexual abuse. Random sexual abusers of children commit impetuous, impulsive and primarily violent acts without control or consideration. They often have prior records of delinquency and sexual abuse features in their backgrounds. They have adult criminal records and have previously been convicted several times or have one prior conviction for sexual offences. The individual in this case is Extra-familial child molesters with a degree of sexual preoccupation with children. These factors predict sexual recidivism as most individuals who commit repeat sexual offences have similar characteristics. These are a factor in increased risk of recidivism amongst child molesters (Knighton et al., 2014).

The characteristics of the sexual offender are more similar to repeat sexual offenders who have previously committed a sexual offence. For repeat sexual offenders, the characteristics indicate an increase in the likelihood of future offending. Probably the most important predictors for the individual are prior offenses, sexual deviance and choice of victims. Additionally, the self confessed attraction is also a predictor of intentions to commit further sexual offenses. In the case, the individual has a history of similar types of offences. This also predicts a higher rate of offending. The relevance of the individuals’ previous offence history is repeated throughout literature. While most offenders do not necessarily specialize, those who commit a sexual offence in the past are more likely to do so again. For this individual, sexual deviancy was often a significant indicator of risk. Compared to the offender in the second case, multiple victims and related victims consistently indicate higher risk. Additionally, the individual has been convicted of sexual offense on more occasions compared to the offender in the second case.

Conclusion
An attempt to understand why recidivism occurs is constructive in developing intervention measures. The case shows a number of consistent patterns that provide useful indicators of risk. The individual in this case is Extra-familial child molesters with a degree of sexual preoccupation with children. The type of victims selected by sexual offenders is an important indicator of recidivism. Often, the individuals who offend exclusively against male children have a higher risk of reoffending. The relevance of the individuals’ previous offense history is repeated throughout literature. Repeat offenses and reconviction for a new sex offense are often considered to be important predictors of recidivism. The individual in this case had previously engaged in child molestation. Criminal history variables are often used to predict sexual recidivism. The idea is that past criminal history is a strong predictor of future behavior. For this individual, sexual deviancy was often a significant indicator of risk. Recidivistic sexual offenders have a deviant schema that eases the commission of repeat offense. The open confession by the individual, in this case, provides a fertile ground for maintenance of deviant sexual behavior. In this case, the potential victim, a young male is incapable of mutuality. Additionally, the self-confessed attraction is also a predictor of intentions to commit further sexual offenses. The individual openly confesses of his attraction towards a potential victim. The second case lacks significant indicators of repeat sexual offense in future.